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About the RDF Model



1. About the RDF Model for Authority Data | 2. Vocabulary Used in the Authority Data | 3. Transcription | 4. RDF/XML Format Specifications



1. About the RDF Model for Authority Data

1-1. Personal Names, Family Names, and Corporate Body Names

Personal names, family names, and corporate body names in authority data comprise a two-tiered model that includes (1) information to maintain authorities (authority information) and (2) the entity represented by the authority data (name entity). This happens because the name entities represented by the authority data for personal name, family name, and corporate body name are used as the instances of dcterms:creator which has the range of Agent class, which means that the name entity needs the unique identifier apart from that of the authority information.
The authority information and name entity are linked by the relationship “foaf:primaryTopic”, which means that the name entity is a primary topic of authority information.
Authority data for the heading “夏目, 漱石, 1867-1916″(ID: 00054222) is expressed in RDF/Turtle as follows.
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>.
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#>.
@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>.
@prefix xl: <http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#>.
@prefix rda: <http://RDVocab.info/ElementsGr2/>.
@prefix frbrent: <http://RDVocab.info/uri/schema/FRBRentitiesRDA/>.
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>.
@prefix ndl: <http://ndl.go.jp/dcndl/terms/>.
@prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/>.

<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlna/00054222>
	foaf:primaryTopic <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/entity/00054222>;
      rdf:type <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept>;
	dct:modified "2010-08-03T10:44:00";
	dct:created "1979-04-01";
	xl:prefLabel [xl:literalForm "夏目, 漱石, 1867-1916";ndl:transcription "ナツメ, ソウセキ, 1867-1916"@ja-Kana,"Natsume, Soseki, 1867-1916"@ja-Latn];
	rdfs:label "夏目, 漱石, 1867-1916";
	dct:source "坊ちゃん","文化人名録 第26版";
	skos:inScheme <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth#personalNames>;
	xl:altLabel [xl:literalForm "夏目, 金之助";ndl:transcription "ナツメ, キンノスケ"@ja-Kana,"Natsume, Kinnosuke"@ja-Latn;dct:description "本名"],[xl:literalForm "Natsume, Soseki"],[xl:literalForm "Soseki Natsume"].
        skos:exactMatch <http://viaf.org/viaf/sourceID/NDL%7C00054222#skos:Concept>.

<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/entity/00054222>
	rdf:type <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person>;
	foaf:name "夏目漱石";
	rda:dateOfBirth "1867";
	rda:dateOfDeath "1916".
Authority information, all basic elements of which can be described in document on the Web, is treated as “Information Resources”, which can be directly obtained by access URIs. On the other hand, because name entities cannot be obtained via a network, dereferenceable URI will not be assigned to the name entities according to the architecture of the web. Name entity URIs are treated as 303 URIs, return HTTP code 303 (see other), and redirect to authority data URIs when referenced.

Example:
URI of the personal name authority “夏目, 漱石, 1867-1916” (ID: 00054222)

1-2. Geographic Names, Uniform Titles, Topical Terms, and Subdivisions

Geographic names, uniform titles, topical terms, and subdivisions comprise a single-tier model including only authority information, because 1) dcterms:subject, which may be used in these authority data, has no range specified, 2) there is no need to distinguish the descriptive information about the entity itself and administrative information about the authority data such as date created or last updated because the concept described is specific to the Web NDL Authorities.
The authority data for the heading “セマンティックウェブ” (ID:01017771) is expressed in RDF/Turtle as follows.
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>.
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#>.
@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>.
@prefix xl: <http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#>.
@prefix rda: <http://RDVocab.info/ElementsGr2/>.
@prefix frbrent: <http://RDVocab.info/uri/schema/FRBRentitiesRDA/>.
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>.
@prefix ndl: <http://ndl.go.jp/dcndl/terms/>.
@prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/>.

<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/01017771>
         rdf:type <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept>;
	dct:modified "2005-11-28T14:34:25";
	dct:created "2005-11-16";
	xl:prefLabel [xl:literalForm "セマンティックウェブ";ndl:transcription "セマンティックウェブ"@ja-Kana,"Semantikkuebu"@ja-Latn];
	rdfs:label "セマンティックウェブ";
	dct:source "セマンティックWeb / 斎藤信男, 萩野達也 監訳 ; Dieter Fensel, James Hendler, Henry Lieberman, Wolfgang Wahlster 編","goo辞書 (200511)";
	skos:inScheme <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth#topicalTerms>;
	xl:altLabel [xl:literalForm "セマンティクウェブ"],[xl:literalForm "Semantic Web"];
	skos:relatedMatch <http://id.ndl.go.jp/class/ndlc/DK341>,<http://id.ndl.go.jp/class/ndlc/ND633>,<http://id.ndl.go.jp/class/ndc9/547.483>,<http://id.ndl.go.jp/class/ndc9/694.5>;
	skos:related <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/01017770>,<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00981806>,<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00575010>;
	skos:broader <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00841024>;
	owl:sameAs <http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/セマンティックウェブ>;
        skos:closeMatch <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2002000569>.

<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/01017770> rdfs:label "オントロジー (情報科学)".
<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00981806> rdfs:label "メタデータ".
<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00575010> rdfs:label "情報検索".
<http://id.ndl.go.jp/auth/ndlsh/00841024> rdfs:label "インターネット".

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2. Vocabulary Used in the Authority Data

The following vocabulary is used to describe authority information.
  • SKOS-XL: skosxl:prefLabel, skosxl:altLabel, and so on*
  • SKOS: skos:broader, skos:narrower, skos:related, skos:note, skos:inScheme
  • DC-NDL: dcndl:previousName, dcndl:laterName, dcndl:realName, dcndl:anotherName , dcndl:ransliteration, and so on
  • RDFS: rdfs:label
  • Dublin Core: dcterms:source, dcterms:created, dcterms:modified, and so on
  • FOAF: foaf:primaryTopic
  • OWL: owl:sameAs
The following vocabulary is used to describe name entities.
*SKOS-XL is used for the following two reasons.
(1) There is a distinction between preferred labels (=Headings) and alternative labels (=Variant(s)), and SKOS-XL fulfills the requirements for structuring the labels and assigning a transcription.
(2) Sharing the preferred and alternate label expressions with all of the authority data enhances convenience to users.

**In order to enhance convenience to users by expressing the same kind of data with the same property, the term “foaf:name” is common to each name entity type (rdf:type).

***With respect to name entity types (rdf:type), “foaf:Person” and “foaf:Organization” are used for Personal Name and Corporate Body Name, while “frbrent:Family” is used for Family Name. While “Person” and “Corporate Body” classes are also defined in FRBR Entities for RDA, the more popular FOAF classes have been adopted.

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3. Transcription

The preferred labels (=Headings) and alternative labels (=Variant(s)) are expressed with “skosxl:prefLabel” and “skosxl:altLabel” respectively. For expression of the transcription of them, “dcndl:transcription” , defined by the National Diet Library Dublin Core Metadata Description (DC-NDL), is used. Transcriptions in both Japanese katakana and Roman alphabet are described in the authority records, and the language attributes “ja-Kana” and “ja-Latn” are used respectively.

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4. RDF/XML Format Specifications

The RDF/XML format specifications are divided below into the two lists “Personal Names, Family Names, and Corporate Body Names” and “Geographic Names, Uniform Titles, Topical Terms, and Subdivisions”.
Format specifications in RDF/XML format for Personal Names, Family Names, and Corporate Body Names(in Japanese) (PDF 79KB) (Updated on July 26, 2017)
Format specifications in RDF/XML format for Geographic Names, Uniform Titles, Topical Terms, and Subdivisions(in Japanese) (PDF 69KB) (Updated on July 26, 2017)


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